This seminar series tries to analyze and understand the processes of creation and transformation of global norms in a context in which two major trends can be identified: on the one hand, the consolidation of a soft cosmopolitanism in the international community and, on the other hand, a certain return to geopolitics, which can be interpreted as a resurgence of Westfalia.
In one of the seminars, I made a presentation titled “Why do we need soft law in climate governance?” The main findings are: (1) The causes, scope and potential solutions to many international issues are transnational or global. Therefore soft laws offer a more convenient model of norm-making. (2) States (heterogeneity in civilization, culture, political and economic systems) are relevant actors in implementing international norms and mobilizing resources to solve global issues. This does not deny the diversity of the non-state actors or private sectors and their increasingly important functions and roles in norm-making.